HarappaWorld HRP0289-HRP0297

I have added the HarappaWorld Admixture results for HRP0289-HRP0297 to the individual spreadsheet.

Do note that the admixture components do not necessarily represent real ancestral populations. Also, the names I have chosen for the components should be thought of as mnemonics to ease discussion. I chose them based on which populations in my data these components peaked in. They do not tell anything directly about ancestral populations. The best way to look at these admixture results is by comparing individuals and populations. Finally, the standard error estimates on these results can be about 1%. Therefore, it is entirely possible that your 1% exotic admixture result is just noise.

I also updated the results for HRP0274 using FTDNA Family Finder data instead of the Genographic 2.0 data that was originally submitted. As the Geno2 data has only 14,000 SNPs in common with my HarappaWorld calculator, it's interesting to see HRP0274's admxiture results change:

Component Geno2 FTDNA
South Indian 48.68% 46.00%
Baloch 34.22% 32.99%
Caucasian 4.33% 5.02%
Northeast Euro 3.89% 3.57%
Southeast Asian 2.75% 1.06%
Siberian 1.25% 1.87%
Northeast Asian 1.16% 1.69%
Papuan 1.14% 1.85%
American 0.87% 1.23%
Beringian 0.01% 1.23%
Mediterranean 0.00% 0.39%
Southwest Asian 1.69% 3.10%
San 0.00% 0.00%
East African 0.00% 0.00%
Pygmy 0.00% 0.00%
West African 0.00% 0.00%

The only differences greater than 1% are South Indian (2.68%), Southeast Asian (1.69%), Southwest Asian (1.41%), Baloch (1.23%), and Beringian (1.22%). It's remarkable that only 14,000 SNPs could provide us a decent result.

We have two new Gujarati participants. HRP0292, a Gujarati Jain, seems to be more similar to somewhat southern populations. HRP0294, a Gujarati Sunni Vohra, has results somewhat similar to HRP0265 (Gujarati Patel Muslim) and more north-oriented. Therefore, I have separated a new ethnic category of Gujarati Muslims in my ethnic spreadsheet. I'll have averages when I compute them next time.

We have two Indian adoptee participants as well. HRP0297 has results which match well with the Bengalis (other than the Brahmins) in this project. HRP0290's results are somewhat harder to figure out. The closest groups, not too close, are probably Tharu from Uttarakhand and Satnami from Chhattisgarh (Reich et al dataset). A ChromoPainter analysis would be more useful here.


  1. NorthwestIndian

    Thanks for adding my admixture result to the list. Is there a post that explains how to interpret them? For example, what does Baloch/C2 stand for - Ancestral North Indian?

    • The best thing to do is to look at the Groups sheet in the HarappaWorld Admixture spreadsheet, sort it by a component and see which populations it is highest in.

      The Baloch component is highest among Brahui, Baloch and Makrani. It is also fairly high all over northern India and Pakistan.

      • NorthwestIndian

        Thanks Zack. That makes sense. I sorted the individual admixture numbers by S. Indian, followed Baloch, Caucasian and N Euro (four of the most common components among S Asians) and the 16 or so closest matches to me (a Rajasthani/Marwari Porwal Jain) are:
        6 Tam Brams, 1 Goan Catholic Brahmin, 1 Maharashtra Saraswat Brahmin, 1 Karnataka Brahmin, 1 UP Mughal/Pathan, 1 UP Kayasth, 1 Bihari Kayasth, 1 Carrribean North Indian Brahmin, 2 Hyderabadis.

        Being from Northwest India and non-Brahmin, its interesting that most of my closest matches are with Southern Brahmins..

        • Well, I don't know much about your background, I do know that Marwaris originate from Southern Rajasthan's Marwar region. Also, Rajasthan is a very large state considering it borders Punjab, Haryana, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. I personally consider its northwestern areas as Northwest Indian but a significant part of the state is more North-Central Indian in my opinion. I define Northwest India as Punjab, Haryana, Northwestern Uttar Pradesh, Northern Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Sindh to some extent even though it's technically in southeastern Pakistan.

          • NorthwestIndian

            I agree with you that Rajasthan straddles Northwest and Northcentral/Western India. My ancestry is what you would call the Northcentral or Western Indian part of Rajasthan. In that sense I am not really Northwestern Indian. However, still surprised that of my 15 closest matches in the Harappa database 9 are Southern Brahmins when I have no known Southern or Brahmin connection going back several generations. (I would be almost willing to bet that my ancestors have all been from the same region of South/Southwestern Rajasthan for the past few hundred years at least).
            What was very clear though was the separation from Northwestern Indians such as Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris and Haryanvis (esp. Jatts) - these groups had significantly higher Balock and/or Caucasian/NE Euro components than me, and lower South Indian component. Also clear was the separation from non-Brahmin Tamils (much higher SI component) and to some extent Bengalis..
            I suppose this in a way shows that barring the Northwestern, Eastern and Southern fringes, Indians are quite a homogenous group ..

  2. I was sceptical about the low numbers of snp in geno 2 chip but it looks like the results are not so noisy.

    By the way the 1 % SE asian your calculator found in the Serbian sample I sent you seems real given the ancestry composition :


  3. Will it ever be possible to "date" the various components in the future? I believe that the Brahmins and Jatts/Pashtuns have different NE European ancestry. Otherwise, why would Brahmins not see the Jatts as their peers? Furthermore, many Jatts like to claim Scythian ancestry. My opinion is that, while, both Jatts and Brahmins have elevated NE European component, the source has to be different. The Jatt admixture in my opinion is more recent.

    • Reality check

      I will disagree with you. I think the harappa results definitely show a strong resemble of NE euro to Caucasus component ratio for both brahmins and jatts. Even the brahmins from bengal and nepal also score NE euro component that is above 10% , same is not the case with their Caucasus. It looks to me that both jatts and brahmins dispersed all over india are offshoots of the same population. The differentiating factor is only that brahmins dispersed all over india have assimilated some native lineages amon thems which has raised their south indian component but it is clear that they were very high in NE euor component so much so that even after scoring high south indian component they still show above 10% NE euro component for many participants of harappa DNA from UP, Rajasthan, Nepal, even bengal etc.

      Pashtuns, pakistani punjabis, kashmiri, kalash they all have a tendency of showing higher Caucasus component compared to their NE euro component so I think they are an offshoot of a common population too, pashtuns and kalash represent the closest remanant of that ancestral population.

      • Well the Haryanvi Jatts average 9% of the Caucasian component with Punjabi Jatts at 10%. The Pakistani Punjabi Arains average 10% as do the Punjabi Brahmins. So, not much difference. Although, the two potentially Muslim Kashmiri average 14% and the Kashmiri Pandits average 12% while the HGDP Pashtuns average 16%. I believe the two individual Pashtuns averaged 16% of the Caucasian component before the second Afghan Pashtun drastically altered the various averages because of his ancestry seemingly being different than that of all the other Pashtuns. Especially, in regards to having lower South Indian and much higher Caucasian components.

        The Punjabi Brahmins have the same % of the Caucasian component as their Punjabi Jatt counterparts while having less of the NE Euro component. I think Curious' theory might actually have some credit but I'm still rather unsure.

        • I was 18%, and the Afghan Pashtun participant was 17%, so pretty close to the HGDP Pashtun average of 16% "Caucasian".

          • My apologies. I was referring to HRP0286 who had a Caucasian component of 25%. He brought your guys' average up quite a bit. However, you and HRP0281 are very similar to the HGDP participants in essentially every category.

    • Reality check

      Also regarding scythians, the pashtuns are an east iraic people and plausibly it is only going to be pashtuns that would have absorbed the scythians wave the most as they were linguistially quite close to each other to begin with, both being east iranic speaking tribes. Since pashtuns shows stronger Caucasian compnent compared to NE euro component which means that scythians were not particularly verg high in NE euro component rather they might have been higher in Caucasus component. Another thing that corroborates it is the fact that kalash and kashmiris who have been living geographically very close to the east iranic tribes also show higher Caucasus component compared to their NE euro component. Another important thing is the ossetian people the last remanant of scythinas also inhabit north caucasus mountains with very high Caucasus genetic component.

    • They share the same main Y lines, either Z2124 or L657. The latter, which is the dominant northern South Asian line has not been seen in any 'Scythian' and is clearly Indo-Arabian. The former is more widespread - from southern India to Britain.

      Palisto has dated these lines in relative terms using a baseline of 8000kybp which IMO should be at-least twice as much, ie, in absolute terms the ages below should be increased by a factor of two.
      South Asian Lines:
      Z93 5989 6979
      Z94 5795 6900
      Z2121/Z2124 5322 5319
      Z2123 4781 3998
      L657 4729 4131
      Y7 3885 2197

      Klyosov thinks that they came from the Andronovo - "The R1a haplotypes which were excavated in the Andronovo archaeological sites east of the Ural Mountains, and which have been dated at between 3800 and 3400 ybp (Keyser et al., 2009), probably belong to the Z94-L657 subclade (Klyosov, 2013). It seems that only two subclades, Z94 and L657, can be considered descendants of the Aryans in the traditional sense. These subclades match the history, archaeology, and languages of the steppe people. They rode chariots and, in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, arrived in India (Indo-Aryans), Iran (Avesta Aryans), and Mesopotamia (Mitanni Aryans) (Klyosov & Rozhanskii, 2012b)." http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?FileName=AA_2013051612554944.pdf&paperID=31366 - but my analysis of the STRs indicates that Andronovo was not L657+.